Point-to-Point: Panchayati Raj Institutions

Hi readers, welcome to Point-to-Point, in this section you'll be reading about individual topics in just point form. These are the most important points that one has to read and remember. It'll be very much helpful for those who are aspiring for UPSC Civil Services exam or any other State PSCs. Today, in this article you'll be reading about Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs).


Background:

  • Article - 40 (DPSP - Part-IV) talks about establishment of village panchayats
  • Community Development Programme launched (on pilot basis) on - 2-Oct-1952.
  • National Extension Service (it is a national wide extension of CDP) is launched on 2-oct-1953.
  • In Jan-1957, GoI appointed Balwanth Rai Mehta Committee to look into CDP and NES programmes. It recommended:
    • creation of 3-tier Panchayati Raj System
  • Rajasthan is the 1st state to create 3-tier panchayati raj on - 2-oct-1959.
  • Next state - Andhra Pradesh on - 1-Nov-1959.
  • State Election Commission conducts the elections for Panchayati Raj (also Municipalities and Co-operative Societies) for every 5-years.
  • In Dec-1977, Ashok Mehta Committee was appointed to look into the functioning of 3-tier Panchayati Raj System.
    • It recommended for 2-tier Panchayati Raj (Zilla Parishad and Mandal panchayat)
  • G.V.K Committee was appointed in 1985.
  • L.M.Singhvi Committee was appointed in 1986.
    • It suggested for Constitutional Protection for PRI.

73rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992

  • Through 64th Amendment Bill, GoI tried to give constitutional protection to PRIs but it failed to pass trough Rajya Sabha.
  • Again, GoI introduced new bill in Lok Sabha on Sep-1991.
  • Lok Sabha Passed the bill on - 22-Dec-1992
  • Rajya Sabha Passed the bill on - 23-Dec-1992
  • Then bill was sent to states for ratification. Total 17 states ratified the bill.
  • President of India gave his consent on - 20-April-1993. Then bill became an act.
  • The act was published in Gazette on - 24-April-1993. From that day, states were given 1-year time to establish 3-tier Panchayati Raj Institutions.
  • This act added:
    • 11th Schedule - Panchayati Raj list - 29 items
    • Part-IX - Art.243A to Art.243O
  • 3-Tier Structure:
    • Zilla Parishad
    • Mandal Panchayat
    • Village Panchayat.
  • In any state, where the population is less than 20lakhs then they can constitute 2 tier structure:
    • Zilla Parishad
    • Village Panchayat
  • Act says: 'Every state should have State Election Commission'
  • It provides reservation for:
    • SCs and STs (reservation is based on population)
    • Women - 33% reservation
  • Maharashtra is the first state to provide 33% reservation to Women in Panchayati Raj Institutions (it provided even before 73rd CAA).
  • Bihar is the first state to increase Women reservation from 33% to 50%.
  • PRI Term: 5yrs
  • Qualification: should not be less than 21yrs of age.
  • Disqualification: if member have more than 2 children.
  • Functions of the PRIs will be decided by the respective state governments.
  • This act empowers PRIs to Tax (but on which items it can tax is determined by respective states).
  • Grants-in-aid can be given to PRIs from Consolidated Fund of State based on State Finance Commission.
  • 73rd CAA is not applicable to:
    • J & K
    • Meghalaya
    • Mizoram
    • Nagaland
    • Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas

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