Polity: Union and its Territories

Q1) In Article 1 of the constitution India is referred to as a ‘Union of states’. Which of the following are not part of this Union?

1) Union Territories
2) Acquired Territories
3) States

Choose from the codes given below:

a) 1 and 2
b) 1 only
c) All of the above
d) None of the above

Answer – D

Explanation: All of them are part of the Union. However, when we talk of Union of India we talk exclusively of states and not of Union Territories. It is to be noted here that Territory of India is a broader term which includes the union territories also unlike the term Union of India.

 

Q2) Consider the following statements:

1) India is a sovereign state.
2) India cannot acquire foreign territories.

Which of the above statements are correct?

a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer – A

Explanation: India is a sovereign state. That is, once the constitution was adopted on 26th January 1950 India became sovereign. This meant that India was a completely sovereign state with no allegiance to the UK or its monarchy. However earlier, India was a Dominion state from the date of its Independence (15th August 1947) until it became a Republic (26th January 1950). The Dominion of India was governed by the Government of India headed by the PM, but the constitutional head of state was the Governor General who represented the monarch of UK.

A sovereign state is a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. A sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state. There are two aspects in sovereignty – internal and external sovereignty.

Internal sovereignty means that the state can legislate internally on subjects of health, education etc. while external sovereignty means that the state can acquire and cede territories. And all of that without any dependence or allegiance to any outside state.

Statement 2: India can acquire foreign territories according to the modes recognised by international law i.e. cession, occupation, conquest or subjugation.

 

Q3) Article 2 of the constitution of India deals with which of the following?

a) It deals with internal re-adjustment inter se of territories of the constituent states of the Union of India.
b) It deals with the formation or changes in the existing states of India.
c) It deals with the power of Parliament to admit into the union of India or establish new states.
d) It deals with preserving and strengthening of the unity and security of the country.

Answer – C

Explanation: Article 2 of the Indian constitution grants two powers to the parliament. One, the power to admit into the union of India new stats and two, the power to establish new states.

Here, the first refers to the admission of the states which are already in existence while the second refers to the establishment of states which were not in existence before.

 

Q4) At the time of Independence of the 552 princely states situated within the geographical boundaries of India only 3 refused to join India. Which of the following are those three states?

a) Kashmir, Hyderabad, Junagarh
b) Mysore, Hyderabad, Rampur
c) Junagarh, Travancore, Gwalior
d) Rampur, Gwalior, Kashmir

Answer – A

Explanation: Of the 552 princely states only 3 states refused to join India while the other 549 joined India. The three princely states namely Kashmir, Hyderabad, and Junagarh were later integrated with India. Hyderabad by means of police action, Junagarh by means of referendum, and Kashmir by the Instrument of Accession.

 

Q5)  Consider the following statements:

1) Indian Federation is a result of an agreement among the states like the American Federation.
2) Indian states have full right to secede from the Indian Federation.

Which of the above statements are correct?

a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer – D

Explanation: The Indian Federation is not the result of an agreement among the states like the American Federation that is why the term ‘union of states’ is preferred over ‘federation of states’.  Also, the states have no right to secede from the federation. 

 

Q6) Article 3 does not authorize the Parliament to:

a) To increase the area of any state
b) To diminish the area of any state
c) To alter the boundaries of any state
d) To cede any state to a foreign country

Answer – D

Explanation: Article 3 authorizes the Parliament to:
a) To form a new state by separation of territory from any state or by uniting two or more states or parts of states or by uniting any territory to a part of any state
b) Increase the area of any state
c) Diminish the area of any state
d) Alter the boundaries of any state
e) Alter the name of any state

 

Q7) Consider the following statements:

1) Before introducing the bill to alter the boundaries of any state prior recommendation of President is needed.
2) The state legislature concerned can express its views only in case of a bill introduced to decrease the area of the state and not if the bill is to increase the area of the state.

Which of the above statements are correct?

a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer – A

Explanation: Statement 1 is correct as prior recommendation of President is required before introducing the bill to increase/decrease/alter the boundaries of any state.

Statement 2 is incorrect. State legislature concerned is to express its views within a specified period of time whenever any bill to increase/decrease/alteration of the boundaries is introduced.

 

Q8) An Indian territory can be ceded to a foreign state by:

a) By the approval of President
b) By amending the constitution
c) By the passage of a bill in parliament
d) By the passage of a bill in concerned state legislature

Answer – B

Explanation: The power of parliament to diminish the area of a state (under Article 3) does not cover cession of Indian territory to a foreign country. Indian territory can be ceded to foreign state only by amending the constitution under Article 368.

 

Q9) Which of the following commission/committee suggested the abolition of the four-fold classification of states under the original constitution and creation of 16 states and 3 centrally administered territories.

a) Dhar Commission
b) Fazl Ali Commission
c) Ahok Mehta committee
d) JVP committee

Answer – B

Explanation: Fazl Ali commission was appointed in 1953 as a three-member state reorganization commission. This commission broadly accepted language as the basis of reorganization of states. But, it rejected the theory of ‘one language-one state’.

The commission also suggested the abolition of the four-fold classification of states under the original constitution and creation of 16 states and 3 centrally administered territories.

 

Q10) Which of the following came to be known as the first linguistic state in India in 1953?

a) Madras
b) Andhra
c) Calcutta
d) Gujarat

Answer – B

Explanation: In October 1953, the Government of India was forced to create the first linguistic state of India known as Andhra state by separating the Telugu speaking areas from the Madras state.

 

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