Definition of Morality:
Ethics focuses not only on human action but also on its morality. Once we decide that an action is human, then that action becomes subject matter for ethics. It is an important function of ethics to figure out whether particular human actions are moral or not. Morality involves the examination of human action to decide if it is good, bad or indifferent—to figure out if it is right or wrong, good or bad.
Psychology has established that humans have free will. People have the capacity to choose one action and reject another. People have the capacity to choose what is right and reject what is wrong or vice versa. Free will plays a vital role in human action and in its morality.
Ontology involves the nature of causality, the difference between cause and effect and the Principle of Sufficient Reason. Epistemology further elaborated on judgments arrived at by generalization. By combining these two studies we can say that if we know the nature or purpose of something or some being, we can fairly accurately decide what kinds of activities are good or bad for that particular thing. For example, if we know what the nature or purpose of a knife is, we can fairly accurately figure out what activities are good or bad for a knife so that it can achieve its purpose. If we know what activities a being does, we can fairly accurately decide the purpose of that being.
Based on this approach, we can say that a thing is good when it is in harmony with or fits a nature. Rightness involves the means to an end—an 62 Ethic
s in Public Administration action is right when it fits a particular end. To decide the morality of human actions, ethics must first determine the end or purpose of human actions— the ultimate end of these actions. End or purpose means the reason for which a person performs an action. Some human actions can have many and different purposes, including immediate and ultimate ones.1 Scholars have different views of what constitutes the ultimate purpose of human actions.