Animals & Birds List

Animals & Birds in News (2019)

Animals

JANUARY - 2019

01. Olive Ridley Turtle

  Other name: Pacific Ridley Sea Turtle

IUCN Classification: Vulnerable

  Olive Ridley Turtles are migratory turtle species that come to India for nesting during winter the season. They are known for their synchronised nesting in mass numbers known as Arribadas.

  Habitat —Warm and tropical waters, primarily in the Pacific, Indian Ocean and warm waters of Atlantic Ocean.

  Nesting sites in India - Hope Island of Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary (Andhra Pradesh); Gahirmatha beach (Odisha); Astaranga coast (Odisha); Beach of Rushikulya River (Odisha); Devi River mouth (Odisha).

  Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972: Schedule I (Species listed in Schedule I are given the highest protection and highest penalties are awarded)

—  CITES: Appendix I (Appendix I lists species that are the most endangered among CITES- listed animals and plants and are threatened with extinction).

  The most severe threat they face is the accidental killing of adult turtles through entanglement in trawl nets and gill nets.

—  To reduce accidental killing in India, the Orissa government has made it mandatory for trawls to use Turtle Excluder Devices (TEDs), a net specially designed with an exit cover, which allows the turtles to escape while retaining the catch.

Why in News?
Thousands of Olive ridleys have assembled near Rushikulya rookery on the Odisha coast for mating season.

02. River Dolphins

  River dolphins are a polyphyletic group of fully aquatic mammals that reside exclusively in freshwater or brackish water.

  They are relatively small compared to other dolphins, having evolved to survive in warm, shallow water and strong river currents.

—  River dolphins are rarely kept in captivity; breeding success has been poor and the animals often die within a few months of capture.

River Water Dolphins types- 

  • Amazon River Dolphin (Boto)
  • Franciscana River Dolphin (La Plata)
  • Ganges River Dolphin
  • Indus Rever Dolphin
  • Yangtze River Dolphin (Baiji)

—  It is worth mentioning that river water dolphins are not always found only in fresh water but also in brackish water. Similarly some dolphins may not be classified as river dolphins but are found in fresh water (for instance Tucuxi & Irrawaddy Dolphin)

 

Difference Between River Water & Marine Water Dolphins:

 

Why in news?
Rise in sea level due to climate change has threatened Ganga River Dolphins in Indian Sundarbans Delta.

03. Great Indian Bustard

  Scientific Name: Ardeotis nigriceps

—  IUCN Classification: Critically Endangered

—  As few as 150 individuals were estimated to survive in 2018 (reduced from an estimated 250 individuals in 2011).

—  Bustards generally favour flat open landscapes with minimal visual obstruction and disturbance, therefore adapt well in grasslands.

—  Habitat: Today, its population is confined mostly to Rajasthan and Gujarat. Small population occur in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

—  Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972: Schedule I (Species listed in Schedule I are given the highest protection and highest penalties are awarded)

—  CITES: Appendix I (Appendix I lists species that are the most endangered among CITES- listed animals and plants and are threatened with extinction).

—  Threat: Main threats include

  • Hunting
  • Poaching outside protected areas
  • Habitat loss due to agricultural developments
  • Collision with high tension electric wires

—  Conservation: Species Recovery Programme under Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats (implemented by Ministry of Environment and Forests)

Why in News?
Two female Great Indian Bustards have been satellite-tagged in the Desert National Park in Rajasthan's Jaisalmer district.

FEBRUARY - 2019

01. Cinereous Vulture

  Other names: Black vulture, Monk vulture, or Eurasian black vulture.

  IUCN Classification: Near threatened

—  Habitat: Forest, Shrubland, Grassland.

—  Distribution: The Cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus) is a large raptorial bird that is distributed through much of temperate Eurasia.

—  Usually, during winters, Cinereous Vulture migrates from the mountainous regions of Europe and Asia to warmer places, including India.

—  Threats: Disappearance of annual & perennial non-timber crops, livestock farming & ranching, hunting and trapping terrestrial animals, temperate extremes.

 

Why in News?
Bird watchers and researchers have found the cinereous vulture in Hazaribagh region of Jharkhand.

02. Humpback Dolphins

—  The humpback dolphin is a coastal dolphin that can be found along the coast of Africa and India south to Australia, areas differing for separate varieties.

—  The humpback dolphin has a hump ahead of the dorsal fin, as well as a careen on a ventral side.

  Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972: Schedule I (Species listed in Schedule I are given the highest protection and highest penalties are awarded)

Distribution:

Classification:

1. Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin

  • IUCN Classification: Vulnerable
  • Habitat: Eastern Indian and Western Pacific Oceans
  • Other name: Chinese White Dolphin

2. Indian Ocean Humpback Dolphin

  • IUCN Classification: Endangered
  • Habitat: Southern Africa to Western Indo-china
  • Indian Ocean humpbacked dolphins experience extremely high rates of calf and juvenile mortality due to anthropogenic disturbances such as environmental pollution, habitat deterioration and noise pollution.

3. Atlantic Humpback Dolphin

  • IUCN Classification: Critically Endangered
  • Habitat: Coastal areas of west Africa
  • It is mainly found in shallow coastal and estuarine waters
  • This species is known to be shy; it does not bow-ride and aerial displays are rarely seen.

4. Australian Humpback Dolphin

  • IUCN Classification: Vulnerable
  • Habitat: Between northern Australia and southern New Guinea
  • Australian humpback dolphins are vulnerable to a variety of threats including incidental captures in gill nets and shark nets set for bather protection, habitat loss and degradation, vessel strikes, pollution, and climate change.


Why in News:
Humpback Dolphin was spotted at Mumbai Coast.

03. Mugger Crocodile

—  Other names: Marsh crocodile, broad-snouted crocodile

—  IUCN Classification: Vulnerable

—  The Mugger crocodile (Crocodylus palustris), is native to freshwater habitats.

—  It is a medium-sized crocodile that inhabits lakes, rivers, marshes and artificial ponds.

—  It is one of three crocodilians in India, apart from saltwater crocodile and Gharial.

—  Habitat: From southern Iran and Pakistan to the Indian subcontinent and Srilanka.

—  It is extinct in Bhutan & Myanmar.

—  Threat: Illegal skin trade, habitat destruction and fragmentation, drowning in fish nets, egg predation by people, and the use of crocodile parts for medicinal purposes.

—  Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972: Schedule I (Species listed in Schedule I are given the highest protection and highest penalties are awarded)

Why in News:
Forest Department had started evacuating muggers from two ponds on the Sardar Sarovar Dam premises on the Narmada, to facilitate a seaplane service at the Statue of Unity.


Other Species with similar resemblance:

04. 6-New Lizards in NE India
05. Sarus Crane

MARCH - 2019

01. Siamese Fighting Fish / Betta
02. Asian Desert Warbler
03. Golden Langur
04. Black Softshell Turtle
05. Pangolins
06. Great Indian Hornbill

APRIL - 2019

01. Rhinos
02. Wood Snake
03. Vaquita Porpoise
04. Purple Frog
05. Starry Dwarf Frog

MAY - 2019

01. Hump Backed Masheer
02. Indian Bullfrogs
03. Komodo Dragon
04. Indian Vulture
05. Yangtze Softshell Turtle
06. Great Backyard Bird

JUNE - 2019

01. Purple Frog
02. Barn Owls
03. Hornbills
04. Pit Viper
05. Grizzled Giant Squirrel

JULY - 2019

01. Dragon Fish

1.(a) What are the basic principles of public life? Illustrate any three of these with suitable examples. (150 words) 10 marks

1.(b) What do you understand by the term ‘public servant’? Reflect on the expected role of public servant. (150 words) 10 marks

2.(a) Effective utilization of public funds is crucial to meet development goals. Critically examine the reasons for under-utilization and mis-utilization of public funds and their implications. (150 words) 10 marks

2.(b) “Non-performance of duty by a public servant is a form of corruption”. Do you agree with this view? Justify your answer. (150 words) 10marks

02. Asiatic Golden Cat
03. Indian Grey Wolf
04. Golden Langur
05. Black Softshell Turtle
06. Impressed Tortoise

AUGUST - 2019

01. Tiger
02. Ganga Dolphin
03. Gharial

SEPTEMBER - 2019

01. Wild Buffaloes
02. Tarantula
03. Clouded Leopard

OCTOBER - 2019

01. Great Indian Bustard
02. Nilgiri Tahr
03. Pangolin
04. Cryodrakon Boreas

NOVEMBER - 2019

01. Snow Leopard

DECEMBER - 2019

01. Olive Ridley Turtle
02. Avian Botulism
03. Sparrows