Syllabus

  • Ecology-1

    Unit-1: Ecology

    1. What is Ecology?
    2. Different Hierarchical Levels of Ecology
    3. Ecosystem - Structure & Functions
    4. Biotic & Abiotic Components
    5. Flow of Energy - Food Chain, Food Web, Energy Pyramid
    6. Nutrient Cycling - Biogeochemical Cycles
    7. Ecological Productivity & Ecological Succession
    8. Ecological Interactions 
    9. Types of Ecosystem - Aquatic Ecosystems v/s Terrestrial Ecosystems

  • Biodiversity

    Unit-2: Biodiversity

    1. Meaning & Relevance of Biodiversity
    2. UN's Millenium Assessment - 4 main services
    3. Measuring Biodiversity - 3 different ways
    4. Threats to Biodiversity
    5. Conservation of Biodiversity - In-situ & Ex-situ Conservation
    6. Organisations & Conventions for Conservation
    7. Legislations & Acts in India for Conservation
    8. Biosphere Reserves, Wildlife Sanctuaries, National Parks
    9. National Wildlife Action Plan 2016-31
    10. CBD, Cartagena Protocal, Nagoya Protocol

  • Energy

    Unit-3: Energy

    1. Renewable forms of Energy
    2. Non-Renewable forms of Energy
    3. Coal
    4. Crude Oil
    5. Natural Gas
    6. From carbon low technologies to carbon negative technologies
    7. Government Schemes & Initiatives
    8. Recent Developments
    9. Atomic Fuels
    10. Way Forward - Targets in Energy Sector

  • Pollution

    Unit-4: Pollution

    1. What is Pollution
    2. Biodegradable waste v/s Non-biodegradable waste
    3. Air Pollution
    4. National Air Quality Index - Air Pollution Measurement
    5. Water Pollution
    6. Radioactive Pollution
    7. Noise Pollution
    8. Soil Pollution
    9. Thermal Pollution
    10. Steps to control Pollution
    11. Recent Achievements
    12. Targets & Aims

  • Climate change

    Unit-5: Climate Change

    1. Meaning of Climate Change 
    2. Past and Present Phenomena of Climate Change
    3. Causes & Impact of Climate Change
    4. Steps taken in response to Climate Change - Globally and Locally
    5. Concept of Positive Feedback and Negative Feedback
    6. El Nino, Indian Ocean Dipole, Sea Level Rise, Desertification etc. 
    7. IPCC Reports and Earth Summit
    8. UNFCCC and COP Summits
    9. Concept of Carbon Credits and Carbon Sequestration
    10. Heroes of Climate Change and Activists like Greta Thunberg

UPSC Year Wise Questions of Environment

UPSC CSE - 2018 Environment Questions

Q1) What are the impediments in disposing the huge quantities of discarded solid wastes which are continuously being generated? How do we remove safely the toxic wastes that have been accumulating in our habitable environment?

Q2) What is wetland? Explain the Ramsar concept of ‘wise use’ in the context of wetland conservation. Cite two examples of Ramsar sites from India.

Q3) How does biodiversity vary in India? How is the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 helpful in conservation of flora and fauna?

UPSC CSE - 2017 Environment Questions

Q1) 'Climate Change' is a global problem. How India will be affected by climate change? How Himalayan and coastal states of India will be affected by climate change?

Q2) Not many years ago, river linking was a concept but it is becoming reality in the country. Discuss the advantages of river linking and its possible impact on the environment.

UPSC CSE - 2016 Environment Questions

Q1) Rehabilitation of human settlements is one of the important environmental impacts which always attracts controversy while planning major projects. Discuss the measures suggested for mitigation of this impact while proposing major developmental projects.

Q2) Give an account of the current status and the targets to be achieved pertaining to renewable energy sources in the country. Discuss in brief the importance of National Programme on Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs).

UPSC CSE - 2015 Environment Questions

Q1) To what factors can the recent dramatic fall in equipment costs and tariff of solar energy be attributed? What implications does the trend have for the thermal power producers and the related industry?

Q2) The Namami Gange and National mission for clean Ganga (NMCG) programmes and causes of mixed results from the previous schemes. What quantum leaps can help preserve the river Ganga better than incremental inputs?

UPSC CSE - 2014 Environment Questions

Q1) Should the pursuit of carbon credit and clean development mechanism set up under UNFCCC be maintained even through there has been a massive slide in the value of carbon credit? Discuss with respect to India’s energy needs for economic growth.

Q2) Environmental impact assessment studies are increasingly undertaken before project is cleared by the government. Discuss the environmental impacts of coal-fired thermal plants located at Pitheads.

UPSC CSE - 2013 Environment Questions

Q1) What are the consequences of illegal mining? Discuss the ministry of environment and forests’ concept of “GO AND NO GO” zones for coal mining.

Q2) Write a note on India’s green energy corridor to alleviate the problems of conventional energy.

Q3) What do you understand by run of the river hydroelectricity project? How is it different from any other hydroelectricity project?

Q4) Enumerate the National Water Policy of India. Taking river Ganges as an example, discuss the strategies which may be adopted for river water pollution control and management. What are the legal provisions for management and handling of hazardous wastes in India?

Subject Analysis

Prelims - 2019:21%
Mains - 2019:38%