National Green Tribunal


  • Establishing the tribunal

    • Established in October, 2010 under the National Green Tribunal Act 2010.
    • Established for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to –
      1. Environmental protection
      2. Conservation of forests and 
      3. Other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right relating to environment and
    • Giving relief and compensation for damages to persons and property and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

  • Organisational structure of the Tribunal

    • The Tribunal is headed by the Chairperson who sits in the Principal Bench in Delhi and has at least ten but not more than twenty judicial members and at least ten but not more than twenty expert members. The current Chairperson of National Green Tribunal is Justice Adarsh Kumar Goel.
    • NGT is set up at five places of sittings and will follow circuit procedure for making itself more accessible. New Delhi is the Principal Place of Sitting of the Tribunal and Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata and Chennai shall be the other four places of sitting of the Tribunal.

  • Functions of the Tribunal

    • It is a specialised judicial body equipped with the necessary expertise to handle environmental disputes involving multi-disciplinary issues. The Tribunal shall not be bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, but shall be guided by principles of natural justice and hence Tribunal's orders are binding.
    • It provides speedy environmental justice and helps reduce the burden of litigation in the higher courts. The Tribunal is mandated to make and endeavor for disposal of applications or appeals finally within 6 months of filing of the same

  • Key Initiatives

    1. Air pollution in the outskirts of Mumbai due to emissions by oil companies and similar businesses.
    2. Pollution of Thirumanimuthar River in Tamil Nadu due to discharge of industrial effluents and municipal sewage.
    3. Curbing noise pollution as per statutory mandate of Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules 2000
    4. Contamination of groundwater in Delhi
    5. Prevention and remedying pollution in river Mandovi in Goa and Rivers Sutlej and Beas in Punjab

Power Ups

Who may submit cases to the Tribunal and what sort of cases are heard?

Any person seeking relief and compensation for environmental damage involving subjects in the legislations mentioned in Schedule I of the National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 may approach the Tribunal.

The statutes in Schedule I are:

  1. The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974
  2. The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977
  3. The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980
  4. The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
  5. The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
  6. The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991
  7. The Biological Diversity Act, 2002